Composition, classification and safe use of primary lithium batteries
2021 Dec 28 By admin 0 comment

In practice, in addition to lithium manganese batteries, other types of primary lithium batteries are also used, and we will briefly introduce them here.

1. Composition and structure of three series of lithium batteries
1). Lithium-thionyl chloride battery
The lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2) battery is made of lithium metal as the negative electrode and thionyl chloride (thionyl chloride) as the positive electrode and electrolyte at the same time.
Once assembled, the lithium-thionyl chloride battery produces a rated voltage of 3.6V. This battery is one of the types with the most stable working voltage, and it is also the battery with the highest capacity per unit volume (unit mass) at present. It is suitable for use on electronic instruments and equipment that cannot be maintained frequently, providing a small current for the circuit and long-term work.
Lithium-thionyl chloride battery was first used in cardiac pacemakers. Because of its extremely low self-discharge rate and very gentle discharge voltage, it is possible to implant the pacemaker into the human body for long-term use.

Composition, classification and safe use of primary lithium batteries
Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

2). Lithium-sulfur dioxide battery
Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries are made of lithium metal as the negative electrode, sulfur dioxide as the positive electrode, and lithium bromide or sulfur dioxide as the electrolyte.

Composition, classification and safe use of primary lithium batteries
Lithium-sulfur dioxide battery

3). Lithium-polyfluorocarbon battery
Lithium-polyfluorocarbon batteries are made of lithium metal as the negative electrode, polyfluorocarbon as the positive electrode, and lithium perchlorate as the electrolyte.

2. Classification and safe use of primary lithium batteries
1). Summary of the series types of primary lithium batteries
In summary, primary lithium batteries can be classified into four series according to different chemical systems, namely lithium-polyfluorocarbon battery series (B series), lithium manganese dioxide battery series (C series), and lithium-thionyl chloride Battery series (E series), lithium-sulfur dioxide battery series (W series). Among them, C series lithium manganese batteries are the most popular.

2). Precautions for the use of lithium batteries
(1) Pay attention to waterproof and moisture-proof. For each series of primary lithium batteries, there is the following commonality, that is, after many materials in lithium batteries come into contact with water, they can undergo violent chemical reactions and release a large amount of heat energy, resulting in high temperature and combustion.
The manganese dioxide in the positive electrode of the lithium manganese battery can generate heat as long as it is touched with a small drop of water. After the sulfurous chloride in the lithium battery comes into contact with water, it will generate hydrochloric acid and sulfur dioxide while releasing heat, which can easily cause combustion. The above-mentioned factors have made lithium series batteries a “fire” in life, so we must pay attention to waterproof and moisture-proof when using lithium series batteries daily. Lithium batteries that have been discontinued should be stored in a dry, low-temperature place to prevent and avoid household fire accidents caused by improper use of lithium batteries.

(2) It is particularly emphasized that “charging, incineration, disassembly, short-circuiting” is strictly prohibited for lithium series primary batteries. In addition to the dangerousness of lithium-manganese battery charging, especially the lithium-thionyl chloride battery, the possibility of charging is more dangerous. In addition, lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries contain high-pressure sulfur dioxide gas, which is more dangerous if they are charged or exposed to high temperatures. Therefore, it must be used in strict accordance with the technical requirements pointed out by the manufacturer in order to avoid unnecessary accidents and achieve safe use.

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